The Sperm Meets the Egg
After undergoing many processes on the way to maturation,
the egg is released from the fallopian tubes. At this
time, it carries with it many cells surrounding it.
Before the egg can be fertilised, the sperm which reach
the fallopian tubes must pass through these cells, which
are called "granulosa" cells, and then penetrate the
thick mantle around the egg.
How will the sperm pass through these obstacles?
Just before the maturated egg is released from the
ovary, the fallopian tube goes into action to intercept
the egg. With delicate touches on the surface of
the ovary, it tries to find the egg cell. (1-2)
In order for the maturated egg to be fertilised,
it must enter the fallopian tube. Finally, the fallopian
tube finds the maturated egg and draws it inside.
Now, the egg cell starts its journey. (3) In order
for the egg to be fertilised and reach the mother's
uterus, it must travel a long road in the fallopian
tube. It is the function of the millions cells in
the fallopian tube to guide the egg to the uterus.
The tiny hairs on the surface of these cells (cilia)
move in only one direction. In this way, as if they
were actually conveying a precious object from hand
to hand, they urge the egg cell to the place where
it has to go. Finally, the egg meets the sperm which
are seeking it. (4) Only one sperm succeeds in entering
the egg. (5) The fertilised egg is directed toward
the mother's uterus with the help of the tiny hairs
in the fallopian tube (6). Every cell performs its
duty flawlessly, because God's creation is perfect.
Here we see once again the evident perfection of intelligent
design in the sperm. In that section of the sperm called
the "acrosome", about which we spoke earlier, the hyaluronidase
and proteolytic enzymes are stored. The hyaluronidase
enzyme in the acrosome breaks down a substance (hyaluronic
acid) binding the multiple layers of granulosa cells
attached to the outside of the ovum. In this way, it
opens a way for the sperm to traverse the egg envelope.
The proteolytic enzymes ensure the dissolution of the
proteins in the tissues attached to the egg. With the
help of these two enzymes, the sperm reaches the egg.15
egg cell surrounded by sperm
How is it that these enzymes which belong to the sperm,
produced in the male body far away from the egg, are
composed of matter that is perfectly able to affect
the structure of the egg? Who discovered the formula
for this operation? Who placed these enzymes exactly
in the right place to enable the fertilisation of the
egg; that is, in the head of the microscopic sperm?
It is not the sperm itself which does these things.
It is not possible for the sperm to be aware of the
existence of hyaluronic acid or the effect this acid
has on cells, or to know that the hyaluronidase enzyme
will neutralize the effect of this acid. Moreover, it
is not sufficient to know the formula of this acid;
its production in the human body must also be ensured.
And it is impossible for the sperm by itself to form
the system in the human body which will produce this
enzyme. For example, if you ask anyone who has not had
training in medicine or chemistry the name of the enzyme
that destroys the structure of hyaluronic acid, or if
you asked him to write the formula of the structure
of this acid, he would certainly not be able to give
you an answer. But a sperm cell does things that a conscious
human would not be able to do; with a seeming awareness
of chemical formulas which it could not, however, know,
it contains substances within its own body to ensure
reaching its goal. Certainly, to say that the sperm
does this is completely contrary to intelligence and
reason. Leaving aside unintelligent and unreasonable
suppositions, it will be seen that the presence in sperm
of enzymes that will affect the structure of the egg
is in itself a proof of creation. This flawless harmony
cannot be explained in any way by reference to chance.
The fact that the sperm is aware of the chemical structure
of another cell different from itself and living in
a completely different environment; that it analyses
the effects that these chemicals will have; that it
then produces the required chemicals according to the
results of the analysis, can be explained only with
reference to a Creator with superior intelligence, Who
has created the sperm with these particular qualities.
god is God alone, there is no god but Him. He
encompasses all things in His knowledge.
(Qur'an, 20: 98)
The perfect design in the structure of sperm is one
of the plainest proofs of the fact that God created
human beings, together with everything else.
2002 Expanded Edition, "Fertilization"