An Unerring Division...
In the cells of the body two kinds of division
take place. One of these, the kind of division called "mitosis"
occurs in all the body's cells. During mitosis, one
cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter
cells. As a result of this division, the mother cell
divides to form two daughter cells, each containing
the same number and kind of chromosomes as the mother
Here, it is necessary to make one point clear at the
outset. If the reproductive cells divided in this way
and if they had the same number of chromosomes as the
other cells in the body, it would not be possible for
a human being to become a human being because, as we
explained above, a birth resulting from the combination
of the separate 46 chromosomes of the mother and father
would produce a baby with 96 chromosomes causing a complete
distortion of the human make-up. But because of the
incomparable design of our bodies this does not happen.
The kind of division that happens in the formation of
the reproductive cells is different; it is called "meiosis".
In the course of "meiosis" the number of chromosomes
in the cells is reduced by half, that is from 46 to
in the Formation of the Egg and Sperm Cells
a result of the various divisions of the primary
egg cells in the ovaries, three small secondary
polar cells and one "ootid" are produced. The
small cells die and the larger one forms the egg.
If the cells produced were all of the same size,
the zygote produced after fertilisation would
not receive enough nourishment.
in the formation of the egg, i.e. the female reproductive
cell, is illustrated on the left. The egg is formed
after the primary egg cells in the ovaries (oogonia)
undergo a series of divisions. In the male, sperm
is produced when the primary sperm cells in the
testes (spermatogonia) divide. From the moment
of their first division, the reproductive cells
function under supervision. When this harmony
among the elements that compose the human body
is considered, (cells, enzymes, hormones), every
thinking person will understand that this system
could not come about by chance. It is God Who
creates human beings, and the extraordinary things
that happen in our bodies are examples of His
Before these divisions are complete, the reproductive
cells have not come to maturity. In every male and every
female body there is a mechanism that brings these cells
to maturity and prepares them for the difficult journey
ahead of them. The male and female reproductive systems,
which are completely unknown to one another and are
very different in many ways, try to make the cells they
produce ready for one another.
In the following pages a detailed account of this topic
will be given. But, as you read these pages, there is
an important point that you should notice. From the
very first moment that the reproductive cells begin
to divide, they are subject to a definite plan. Nothing
is random. The cells divide exactly as necessary and
maintain the required number of chromosomes without
any change or deficiency throughout the process. Every
organ, every cell of which it is composed, and the organelles
which make up the cells, function in perfect harmony.
In addition, the molecules that make up the enzymes
and the hormones which play a role in the functioning
of the body, and the atoms that make up these molecules,
are part of a highly complex information system, which
tells them when they will have to start their work,
and they are never at a loss to know how and to what
degree it is necessary to exert their influence.
Cells, enzymes, hormones in short, the harmony that
exists among all the parts of the body is certainly
something worth thinking about.
The fact that a molecule and the atoms that make up
this molecule can make a plan, and act according to
it; that one part can give a command and another part
obey it, understand it and put it into effect is too
extraordinary a thing to be the product of chance. The
fact that this has happened and still happens without
exception in the bodies of the millions of human beings
who have ever lived makes it all the more extraordinary
that the same harmony operates perfectly in every individual.
It is clear that this cannot be by random chance, and
that a supreme, conscious intelligence is responsible
for giving their special qualities to the microscopic
cells that make up our bodies, as well as to the hormones
that these cells produce, to the enzymes and the hundreds
of thousands of other tiny elements in the human system.
It is obvious that every part of every stage of the
whole system that functions in the human body is beyond
human comprehension and that it is the work of an incomparably
This supreme intelligence belongs to God, Who has created
the whole universe down to its smallest detail. In the
Qur'an, God says that there are no other gods besides
there is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining.
He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything
in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Who
can intercede with Him except by His permission?
He knows what is before them and what is behind
them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge
save what He wills. His throne encompasses the
heavens and the earth and their preservation does
not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent.
(Qur'an, 2: 255)