The Miracle Of The Immune System

The T cell's Differentiation According to the Order It Receives

The war has not yet ended for the T cells. Some T cells-to-be destroy themselves after receiving a specific signal from other cells. 

There is very limited information on the signals that cause the cells to die a programmed death, to continue to live, or to mature and transform themselves. From a scientific point of view, this remains one of the unsolved mysteries of the defence system. Many similar cells in our body receive signals from somewhere, and start functioning upon this signal. How can these cells, which send signals to one another, be aware of the need to send a signal? Mahlon B. Hoagland brings up the same question in his book, The Roots of Life:

How do the cells know when to stop growing? What tells them that the organs of which they're a part are not just the right size? What is the nature of the division stopping signal(s)? We don't know the answer and we continue to search for it. 10
Indeed, the mystery of the signaling between cells has not been solved yet. 

A stem cell would normally be expected to divide to form two new cells bearing the same features. However, a switch hidden in one of the cells is turned on causing a sudden transformation in the cell. This new cell is the T cell that will fight for the human body. This leads us to ask the following question:

Why does a cell transform itself into a totally different cell?

Science has not answered this question yet. Science can answer the question of how the cell transforms itself, but it can never explain why the cell would want to become a fighter cell. Nor can it explain who programmed the cell to become a cell that defends the body when the need arises. 

Only those who acknowledge the being of God can fully comprehend the answers to these questions. 

Types of T cells

T cells come in three groups: helper T cells, killer T cells, and suppressor T cells. Every T cell has a special MHC molecule enabling it to recognize the enemy. 

Helper T cells

These cells can be regarded as the administrators of the system. In the initial stages of war, they decipher the properties of the foreigner cells absorbed by the macrophages and other antigen catcher cells. After they receive the due signal, they stimulate killer T and B cells to fight. This stimulation causes B cells to produce weapons called antibodies. 
 

Helper T cells secrete a molecule called lymphokine to stimulate other cells. This molecule somehow turns on a switch in other cells and starts off the war alarm. 

The ability of the helper T cell to produce a molecule, which activates another cell, is a very important process.
First, the production of this molecule is related to an impending war strategy. It is obvious that the cells cannot make up this strategy themselves, nor can the strategy come about by sheer coincidence.

Developing a strategy would not be enough either. The molecule in the cell, which will switch on the production key in the other cell, should be synthesized accurately. For this, it has to be perfectly aware of the chemical structure of the opposite cell. 

A mistake made in the production of this molecule alone would paralyze the defence system entirely. This is because an army without communication would be destroyed even before it launched its defence. 

The existence of this molecule alone suffices to prove the absurdity of the theory of evolution. This is because the prerequisite of the system is the existence of this molecule right from the outset. If helper T cells failed to alert other cells with the help of this molecule, the human body would surrender to viruses. 

Killer T cells

The killer T cells are the most efficient elements of the defence system. In previous chapters, we have studied how viruses are inactivated by proteins called antibodies. There are cases, however, when antibodies cannot reach out to a virus which has invaded a cell. On such occasions, killer T cells kill the sick cell which is invaded by the virus. 

A closer examination of how killer T cells kill sick cells would reveal a great wisdom and an artistry in creation. 

The killer T cells first have to distinguish between normal cells and those in which invaders hide. They deal with this problem with the help of the innate system (MHC molecules) granted to them. When they locate the invaded cell, they secrete a chemical substance. This secretion sinks into the membrane of the cell forming a hole by lining up sideways in close formation. Following this, leaking starts in the cell which is full of pores, and the cell dies. 

Killer T cells store this chemical weapon in granular form. This way, this chemical weapon is always kept ready for use. Scientists were amazed to discover the fact that the cell produces its own weapon by itself and stores it for future use. Even more amazing are the details in the mind-boggling way the cell uses this chemical weapon.

When an enemy approaches the host cell, these microgranules move to the tip of the cell in the direction of the enemy. Afterwards, they come in contact with the cell membrane, melt into it, and by extending towards the outside, they release the substance contained within them. 

Natural Killer Cells: "NK"

These lymphocytes, which are produced in the bone marrow, are also available in the spleen, lymph node, and the thymus. Their most important functions are killing tumour cells and virus-carrier cells. 

From time to time, invader cells take very sinister courses. They sometimes hide so well in body cells that neither antibodies nor T cells recognize the enemy. Everything seems usual from the outside. In such cases, the defence system somehow suspects an anomaly and "NK" cells rush to that region through the blood. Killer lymphocytes surround the cell and start to push the cell around. At that stage, the enemy cell is killed by a toxigenic substance injected inside it. 

How these cells identify the enemy is yet another unanswered question about the defence system. The receptors that should be present on their surfaces to enable them to identify of the target cells have not yet been discovered. Therefore, the mechanism they employ in identifying the enemy has not yet been clearly understood. 

Despite all the technology at its disposal, mankind has still not been able to solve the details of the system these cells use to identify the enemy. Perhaps future technological advances will throw light on this system and this subject will no longer be a mystery. This, too, would be a piece of evidence proving the perfection of the current system, and what an intricate plan is involved in its creation. 

Blood Cells -

Thrombocytes: The coagulation of blood is considered an ordinary event, which is largely ignored by people. However, if the perfect system which makes this possible had not existed, human beings would experience significant risks and even bleed to death from the slightest injuries. The thrombocyte, which is one of the blood cells produced in the bone marrow, serves this function. It also includes a substance called serotonin that plays an important role in allergic reactions. 

- Eosinophil: These blood cells have the ability to perform phagocytosis, i.e. destroy (phagocytose) any foreign cells entering the body. 

- Basophil: A big, rough and single-nucleus blood cell which is found in small quantities in the blood, and abundantly in the dermal, splenic and intestinal connective tissues. 

- Neutrophils: With an antibacterial quality, these blood cells protect the organism against foreign materials. In addition, they help the defence system with their phagocytosis capabilities.

 

Antigen Presenting Cells: "APC" 

The duty of these cells is to present the antigen (enemy) to the T cells. Why a cell would serve such a function - an important responsibility - definitely needs further consideration. It knows that the T cells defend the human body, identify the enemy and present the enemy it captures to the T cells for them to provide intelligence about it. 

Why would the cell do this? According to the theory of evolution, this cell should be concerned only about its own well-being. However, it serves the system, although it receives no benefit from it. 

What is even more interesting is that the APC are very well aware of the requirements of the T cells. Based on this, the APC will break down the enemy cell and present to the T cell only the amino acid sequence. This means that the APC is even aware that the T cell will extract the required information from this sequence.

At this point, it would be useful to recall one thing: We mentioned actions such as "knowing", "calculating", "thinking", "serving". Unquestionably, those actions require a certain consciousness. It is virtually impossible for a being with no consciousness or will to perform these actions. Yet, here we are talking about these abilities as being inherent in these minuscule entities: common, tiny, unconscious cells. Therefore, who gives this consciousness, ability, and a glorious system to these cells?

The answer to this question is very evident. It is God Who creates the APC and the T cell, as well as all other cells in the body, in a harmonious way to serve in the same system. 

10- Mahlon B. Hoagland, Roots Of Life, pp. 106-107