Preparations to Meet
the Egg Cell
When the mature egg enters the second period of its
four-week life (about 14 days later), it is released
from the ovaries. Now, the egg cell begins its journey
to the mother's womb. If it is fertilized during this
journey, it will begin a new life; if it is not fertilized
it will die and be expelled from the body.
When the egg cell leaves the ovary and starts its journey,
it is still supported by the inside of the ovary it
left behind and also by the pituitary gland located
at a far distance from it. The pituitary gland knows
that the released egg needs help and secretes a special
hormone called LTH. This hormone travels by way of the
blood to the ovaries and affects the mass of cells called
the "corpus luteum" in the ovary, which in turn secretes
The progesterone hormone has a special design and a
very special purpose. This hormone, although it never
leaves the ovaries and never sees the world outside
them, influences cells located far distant from it,
ensuring that these cells act according to a definite
plan. This is yet another example of the wonder of creation
that occurs in the human body.
When progesterone molecules reach the uterus, they
cause, as in the case of the estrogen meeting the egg
cell, that certain preparations are made. In one sense
they increase the strength of estrogen.
Progesterone also affects the ovary itself, by preventing
a new egg cell from being released. Otherwise, as an
embryo was developing in the mother's womb, a second
egg cell would be fertilized, producing a great danger
both for the developing embryo and the mother.
The structure of an ovary where female sex hormones
How does progesterone know that, after fertilization
has occurred, a second fertilization must not happen
and that it is necessary to stop the activity of the
ovary to prevent it? Who gave this ability to progesterone,
which is only a molecule?
Another special function of progesterone is to diminish
the influence of the oxytocin hormone secreted by the
pituitary gland. As we saw earlier, oxytocin is a hormone
that goes into effect as the time of birth approaches
and ensures that the uterine muscles will contract.
As a result of these contractions, the baby comes out
of the mother's womb more easily.
If oxytocin affected the uterus during the first days
of fertilization, these muscles would eject the fertilized
egg as it attached itself to the uterine wall, and pregnancy
would never occur. Progesterone goes into effect at
this stage and inhibits the influence of oxytocin, preventing
the fertilized egg from being ejected. Progesterone
is amazingly designed to negate the effect of oxytocin.
How do the cells, which produce progesterone, know
about the existence of oxitocin? Remember, progesterone
is produced by cells inside the ovary. Oxytocin is produced
far away from ovary, in the pituitary gland located
in the skull. How did oxytocin learn what causes the
uterus to contract, and that the fertilized egg could
be ejected? What intelligence designed the progesterone
molecule to prevent this?
A diagram showing the structure of the hormonal
system in females. With the secretion of FSH and
LH from the hypothalamus, the hormonal system
is activated. The estrogen and progesterone secreted
as a result of this causes a female to enter puberty.
The planning here demonstrates the existence of an
intelligence that did the planning. And, in order for
this planning to be done, this intelligence must know
all the detailed aspects of the human body. God, Who
has created human beings with all their special characteristics,
has created an ideal harmony in the progesterone-oxytocin
A maturated egg is ejected from the ovary in the
direction of the fallopian tube (1). It advances
through the fallopian tube (2-3-4), and reaches
the uterus where it lodges in the uterine wall
Progesterone has another special feature, which is
still another proof of the helplessness of human beings
before God Who created them.
The moment a fertilized egg cell reaches the wall of
the uterus and begins to grow there, it becomes something
foreign in the mother's body. The immune cells in the
mother's body would inevitably attack this group of
cells as they multiply. This attack would end the life
of the baby even before it began and pregnancy would
But progesterone prevents the cells of the immune system
from attacking the zygote in the wall of the uterus.
Besides its other functions, progesterone also protects
the developing group of cells from being attacked. Certainly,
this shows once again that progesterone was created
by a high intelligence, that is, by God.
As noted earlier, secretion of progesterone occurs
in the second half of a four-week period. If fertilization
does not occur in this period of time, the amount of
progesterone and estrogen in the blood quickly decreases
because it is no longer necessary to make preparations
for a new human. These preparations (the multiplying
capillary vessels to feed the fertilized egg in the
wall of the uterus) are expelled from the body, a process
The secretion of the FSH hormone four weeks later in
the pituitary gland corresponds to a new egg cell that
begins to maturate in the ovary, and another new four-week
preparation period starts.
The Male Reproductive System
Hormones also play a key role in the male reproductive
system. About 10 years after birth, when adolescence
begins, male hormones come totally into play. This happens
when a chain of command is established in the body.
At the top of this chain of command is the hypothalamus.
After birth, the hypothalamus secretes
a hormone called LHRH every 3-4 hours, but the amount
secreted is very small. About ten years later, the hypothalamus
actually "understands" that the time has come to begin
the shaping of the male body and begins to secrete LHRH
in smaller intervals.43 The LHRH
hormone moves to the second link in the chain of command,
the pituitary gland. As soon as the pituitary gland
receives the command, it secretes another hormone called
LH. This hormone gives the command to activate the male
sex glands, the testes.
Why do all these functions take so long to begin and
how can we explain the timing of these mechanisms? The
answers to these questions are still unknown to the
world of science. In any case, this system (whose secrets
human beings have not been able to solve) has operated
since the beginning of history in the body of every
When the LH hormone reaches the testes via the bloodstream,
the cells there begin to produce a hormone called testosterone.
The cells that produce testosterone know the time has
come for the body they occupy to pass from childhood
to manhood. The chemical formula of the testosterone
they produce will turn a developing child into a man.
Testosterone molecules disperse to various parts of
the body and know what they must do to certain cells
in these areas. Some of the functions of testosterone
in forming the male body are as follows:
Testosterone molecules cause the multiplication of
muscle cells. For this reason, the male body is more
muscular and stronger than the female body. The increase
in muscle mass gives the male body its characteristic
At the same time, testosterone molecules affect the
cells in the roots of the hair, causing the beard and
mustache to appear. The hairline on the forehead is
drawn farther back.
Testosterone affects the vocal cords causing a male
voice to be lower than that of a woman. In addition,
the testosterone molecule gives the male body its ability
to fertilize the female egg.
Certainly it is surprising that an unconscious molecule
can do all this. This molecule knows the particularities
of the male body and directs trillions of cells in the
formation of this body.
Testosterone molecule is not limited to these things.
Clear evidence of design can be seen in the mechanism
by which this hormone exerts its influence. In order
to bring about its effects, testosterone reaches the
targeted tissues (the male genital organs) and enters
the cells. Inside the cell, it unites with an enzyme
specially created for it whereby its effects are greatly
This newly formed hormone then unites with a special
receptor designed specially for it. The resulting molecular
combination unites with the cell's DNA and uses the
information received from the DNA to bring about a new
protein synthesis. This operation ensures that the distinction
between male and female bodies, and their different
sexual functions, will continue.
This is such a flawlessly created system that the mechanism
formed from the three-fold union of testosterone-enzyme-receptor
finds the place allotted to it from among the numberless
data codes contained in the DNA and, on the basis of
this information, ensures production. For example, for
the growth of the beard, they act on the relevant regions
in the DNAs of the hair root cells. To lower the voice,
they act on the appropriate region in the DNAs of the
vocal cord cells.
The information given here is extremely important.
is a molecule produced from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
atoms. How does this unconscious, lifeless thing know
that the information it needs to perform its function
is located in the DNA? Even more important, how can
it find so quickly (and accurately) the few letters
it is looking for from among three billion letters (enough
to fill thousands of volumes of an encyclopedia) in
the DNA? The hundreds of scientists, who have worked
for ten years with the most advanced technology on the
Human Genome Project, are only today able to map the
DNA. But they still do not know which section of the
DNA is related to which organs, proteins or hormones
of the human body. However, estrogen (C18H24O2)
and testosterone (C19H28O2)
know this very well and have applied what they know
without error throughout countless years in the bodies
of numberless individuals.
Certainly this system is a miracle of creation that
demonstrates God's artistry.
"Am I to desire other than God as Lord when
He is the Lord of all things?" What each
self earns is for itself alone. No burden-bearer
can bear another's burden. Then you will return
to your Lord, and He will inform you regarding
the things about which you differed.
(Qur'an, 6: 164)
Testosterone is produced by the LH hormone secreted
from the pituitary gland. But the LH hormone is just
as much under the control of testosterone as testosterone
is under the control of LH. When the amount of testosterone
in the blood increases, testosterone molecules exert
pressure on the pituitary gland to cause them to cease
producing LH. Only when the amount of testosterone decreases
does the production of LH begins again. The LH produced
activates the testes and orders extra production in
order to raise the amount of testosterone.
From this we can clearly conclude that there is an
exchange of information between the pituitary gland
and the testes. Two unconscious glands control each
other's production and cooperate to ensure the secretion
of the ideal amount testosterone for the human being,
and prevent any danger that might arise from the secretion
of too little (or too much) testosterone. More exactly,
within the two glands molecular sub-systems are placed
so as to ensure their harmonious cooperation. This flawless
design shows that these systems were created to fulfill
a common purpose.
At the same time, the FSH hormone secreted by the pituitary
gland begins the production of sperm in the testes.
Sperm cells are specially designed for the fertilization
of egg cells. Another example of design is that, with
the beginning of adolescence, FSH is secreted and sperm
starts to be produced at just the right time.
Two Different Sexes From the Same Raw
Male and female sex hormones have a common characteristic.
The male hormone, testosterone, and the female hormones,
estrogen and progesterone, are made from the same raw
A diagram of male hormonal control.
How is it that cells using the same raw material manage
to form different sexes? A testis cell gives shape to
the raw material that it is given and forms male characteristics;
with the same raw material, an ovary makes the estrogen
and progesterone that produce female characteristics.
The same substance, just because of the modifications
given to it by a cell, causes the growth of the beard,
the widening of the shoulders, the lowering of the voice,
and the production of sperm. Again the same substance,
because of the different shape given to it by another
cell, causes the widening of the female pelvis bone,
the growth of breasts, the raising of the vocal pitch
and the preparations necessary to give birth to a child.
Cells without intelligence use the same raw material
to produce molecules, each with their own flawless design
(and each one destined for a very different purpose).
This one example is enough to show the greatness of
the intelligence manifested in these tiny cells too
small to be seen by the naked eye.
It is God Who created the seven heavens
and of the earth the same number, the Command descending
down through all of them, so that you might know that
God has power over all things and that God encompasses
all things in His knowledge. (Qur'an, 65: 12)
Ic Hastaliklari (Internal Diseases), p. 392