The Planning and Timing
in the Messenger Molecules
Nerve messages from one neuron to another are
sent as electrical impulses along the axon. They
are sent from the ends of the axon to another
nerve cell by nerve transmitter hormones located
on the end of the nerve. Dopamine is one of those
The density of the chemical messengers and the time
they remain in the synapse cavity directly influence
the communication between the two neurons. Different
mechanisms exist for each chemical messenger. Some messengers
disperse after they deliver their messages. Others are
broken down by special enzymes after they have performed
their functions. For example, the messenger molecule
called "acetylcholine" is converted by a special enzyme
into choline and acetate.
There is yet another marvelous mechanism in the nerve
cells: The messengers that transmit a message to the
receptor cell are gathered back again into the transmitter
cell and are stored there to be used in a subsequent
message. This operation is performed by a few special
molecules. The activity of the dopamine and serotonin
molecules is regulated in this way. If we consider how
difficult it is to recycle products, we can better understand
the effectiveness of this mechanism in the nerve cells.
Every phase of chemical communication occurs within
an incredibly delicate balance. Every messenger molecule
used in every communication, and every protein and enzyme
that performs a function in the various stages, must
be designed. The number of messenger molecules that
will be stored, how long the receiver cell will be stimulated,
the time for disintegration or reassembly are a part
of the necessary communication balances. Moreover, an
important number of details relating to communication
balances is still unknown.
In the picture you see a patient with Parkinson's
disease working with her doctor. In their attempt
to find a cure for Parkinson's, scientists continue
to do research on this disease.
Parkinson's disease is a condition that destroys muscle
coordination, makes movement difficult, and causes tremors.
The cause of this disease is the destruction of the
balance between the messenger molecules dopamine and
acetylcholine. When some nerve cells in the brain produce
less dopamine than is required, the result is the loss
of muscle control. This fact came to light only recently
(Professor Arvid Carlsson was awarded by the Nobel Prize
for his discovery).
These delicate balances and complex mechanisms are
not composed of a random series of events. The One Who
creates them, keeps them under His power, gives them
to the service of human beings and takes them back again
when He wishes, is God, to Whom belongs eternal power
The Electrical Communication Between
At every moment, every nerve cell experiences a complex
conversion. Communication via neurons is an operation
that occurs when electro-chemical or chemical messengers
generate an electrical signal.
In order to understand electrical communication, we
must first consider another balance mechanism: the marvelous
balance formed by the electric charge in nerve cells,
the ions. Ions perform an important function within
neurons; there is one positively charged sodium and
potassium ion, two positively charged calcium ions and
one negatively charged chloride ion. In addition, there
are some negatively charged protein molecules.
A message left on a receptor on the membrane of
a nerve cell starts a series of reactions inside
the cell similar to a row of falling dominoes.
In its resting state, a neuron is
negatively charged. In this state, negatively charged
proteins and various ions are within the nerve cell.
Compared to the number outside, there are more potassium
ions and less chloride and sodium ions inside the neuron.72
These are not arranged at random, and this proportion
is specially determined and maintained.
The message left on the membrane receptors in the nerve
cell initiates a serial operation in the cell that is
reminiscent of the domino effect. In the course of this
operation whose details are not yet fully known, it
is thought that hundreds of proteins perform a function.
This operation happens serially and in perfect order,
causing particular ion channels to open on the cell's
membrane. The result is that the sodium ions that are
taken inside the cell neutralize the cell that earlier
had a negative electric charge (-70 millivolts). The
transfer of ions between the inside and the outside
of the cell creates an electric signal. The operations
that we have described here in the simplest of terms
begin and end in less than one thousandth of a second.
The signal that is created travels
quickly along the axon and initiates the chemical operations
that will pass the message to other cells on the synapse
points on the ends of the terminals. The average speed
of the signal along the axon is 120 meters per second.73
A simple calculation will show us that this speed equals
432 kilometers per hour.
The nerve cell that transmitted the message completes
its task and returns to its resting state. This restoration
happens by the opening and closing of the sodium and
potassium channels within a period of less than one
thousandth of a second. Without a clock produced by
means of high technology, you cannot measure one thousandth
of a second. Imagine that you had such a watch; you
still could not coordinate the opening and closing of
the ion channels on one single nerve cell. If you attempted
to initiate the millions of operations that occur every
moment, a mistake in the timing of just one thousandth
of a second would derail the operations.
Ions have an important function in a neuron. There
is one positive sodium ion, one positive potassium
ion, two positive calcium ions, and one negative
chloride ion. The proportion of potassium inside
the neuron is larger compared to that on the outside
while the proportion of chloride and sodium is
lower. What we have to notice here is that this
arrangement must be specially designed and maintained
in order to keep these balances in a definite
proportion; it cannot happen by chance.
An Evident Fact
Neurons establish thousands of connections among
There is another feature that distinguishes neurons
from the rest of our cells. Other cells in our bodies
are constantly being renewed but neurons do not change.
With age, their number decreases but the nerve cells
present in a person's old age are the same ones he had
in his youth. What has been described to this point
has been a really simplified account of communication
systems in the neurons that function throughout a person's
life. Even someone with intelligence and knowledge would
have difficulty understanding these things; cells and
hormones have performed these functions very successfully
without error in the millions of individuals that have
lived in the world since the beginning.
How did these highly complex systems in each one of
our nerve cells come into being? How did the incredible
harmony among the hundreds of millions of cells in our
bodies come into existence? How is such marvelous communication
system ensured without confusion arising? How does this
system, which depends on remarkably delicate balance
and timing, work without making an error?
It is natural that hundreds of questions about "how"
fill the human mind. Despite all these facts, some scientists
vainly try to defend the evolutionist claim that these
flawless systems came to be totally as a result of blind
chance. Impossible is not too strong a word to describe
the attempts of evolutionists who try to connect the
origins of life to an imaginary "primeval cell" formed
by chance; they have no answers to the questions posed
One point in articles written by evolutionists attracts
our attention; there is no scientific explanation of
how evolution happens. Instead, they propose that the
molecules and proteins that function in communication
appear at some stage in so-called evolution, and that
they have come down to us with no change in their structure.
Certainly, a claim such as this, which has not even
the slightest proof, is an immense deceit. In the guise
of science, they play a game of words designed to deny creation.
praise belongs to God, the Lord of the heavens
and the Lord of the Earth, Lord of all the worlds.
All greatness belongs to Him in the heavens and
Earth; He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.
(Qur'an, 45: 36-37)
There is no doubt that there is only one explanation
why such a marvelous mechanism has come into existence:
God, the Lord of all worlds, creates cells from nothing.
It is our Lord, the Creator of us all, Who designs the
incredibly complex and interconnected communication
systems in cells down to their finest details. It is
God Who gave never resting atoms, proteins and molecules
to our service; and it is only He Who is worthy to be
praised and exalted.
72 Eric H. Chudler,
"Brain Facts and Figures," 2001, http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/facts.html
73 Lionel Bender, The Human Body:Its Mysteries and Marvels,
Crescent Books, 1992, p. 60.