The recent completion
of the human gene map within the scope of the Human
Genome Project is an important scientific improvement.
However, some results of this project are being distorted
in some evolutionist publications. It is claimed that
the genes of chimpanzees are 98 % similar to human
genes, and this is presented as an evidence for
the claim that apes are close to humans, and therefore,
logical ancestors of humans as claimed by Darwin's theory
of evolution. The argument is misleading.
The claim of 98% similarity is deceptive. To
claim that the genetic make-ups of man and chimpanzee
bear 98 % similarity to each other, the genome of the
chimpanzee also has to be mapped just as that of man
and the two have to be compared. No such result for
the chimpanzee has been done yet.
This claimed similarity is an exaggerated generalisation
grounded on the similarity in the amino acid sequences
of some 30-40 basic proteins present in man and
chimpanzee. A sequence analysis has been made with a
method named "DNA hybridization" on the DNA sequences
that are correlated with these proteins and only those
limited number of proteins have been compared. However
there are about hundred thousand genes, and therefore
100,000 proteins coded by these genes in humans. The
claim that all the genes of man and ape are 98 %
similar is based on the similarity in 40 out of 100.000
Moreover, the above mentioned basic proteins are common
vital molecules present in various other living beings.
The structures of the same kinds of proteins present
not only in chimpanzees, but also in completely different
living beings, are very similar to that in humans.
For example, the genetic analyses published in New
Scientist have revealed a 75 % similarity between
the DNAs of nematode worms and man. (New Scientist,
15 May 1999, p.27) This definitely does not mean that
there is only a 25% difference between man and these
On the other hand, the analyses done on some proteins
show man as close to some very different living beings.
In a survey carried out by the researchers at Cambridge
University, some proteins of land dwelling animals were
compared. Amazingly, in nearly all samples, man and
chicken were paired as the closest relatives. The
next closest relative was the crocodile. (New Scientist
v.103, 16 August 1984, p.19)
Another example used by evolutionists on "the genetic
similarity between man and ape", is the presence
of 48 chromosomes in chimpanzees and gorillas and 46
chromosomes in man. Evolutionists regard the closeness
of the number of chromosomes as indication of an evolutionary
relationship. However, if this logic were true, then
man should have an even closer relative than the chimpanzee:
the potato!. The number of chromosomes in a potatoe
is exactly equal to the number of chromosomes in a human:
These examples show that genetic similarity does not
constitute evidence for the theory of evolution. This
is because the genetic similarities are not in line
with the alleged evolution schemes, and on the contrary,
they yield completely opposite results.
Not surprisingly, when the issue is evaluated as a
whole, it is seen that the subject of "bio-chemical
similarities" does not constitute an evidence for evolution,
but on the contrary leaves the theory in the lurch.
Dr. Christian Schwabe, a biochemistry researcher from
the Medical Faculty of South Carolina University, is
an evolutionist scientist who has spent years to find
evidence for evolution in the molecular domain. He particularly
did researches on insulin and relaxin-type proteins
and tried to establish evolutionary relationships between
living beings. However, he had to confess for many times
that he could not find any evidence for evolution at
any point in his studies. He said;
"Molecular evolution is about to be accepted
as a method superior to palaeontology for the discovery
of evolutionary relationships. As a molecular evolutionist
I should be elated. Instead it seems disconcerting
that many exceptions exist to the orderly progression
of species as determined by molecular homologies;
so many in fact that I think the exception, the quirks,
may carry the more important message" (Christian Schwabe,
"On the Validity of Molecular Evolution", Trends
in Biochemical Sciences. V.11, July 1986)
Based on the recent findings obtained in the field
of molecular biology, the renowned biochemist Prof Michael
Denton made the following comments;
"Each class at molecular level is unique,
isolated and unlinked by intermediates. Thus, molecules,
like fossils, have failed to provide the elusive intermediates
so long sought by evolutionary biology… At a molecular
level, no organism is "ancestral" or "primitive" or
"advanced" compared with its relatives… There is
little doubt that if this molecular evidence had been
available a century ago… the idea of organic evolution
might never have been accepted." (Michael Denton, Evolution;
A Theory in Crisis, London; Burnett Books 1985
It is surely natural for the human body to bear some
molecular similarities to other living beings because
they all are made up of the same molecules; they all
use the same water and atmosphere; and they all consume
foods consisting of the same molecules. Certainly, their
metabolisms and therefore genetic make-ups would resemble
one another. This, however, is not evidence that they
evolved from a common ancestor.
This "common material" is not the result of an evolution
but of "common design", that is, their being created
upon the same plan.
It is possible to explain this subject with an example.
All building constructions are done with similar materials
(brick, iron, cement, etc.). This, however, does not
mean that these buildings "evolved" from each other.
They are constructed separately by using common materials.
The same is true of living beings as well.
Darwinists are distorting the results of the Human
Genome Project. Life did not originate as a result of
unconscious coincidences as evolution claims, but as
the result of the creation of God, the Almighty, the
Owner of infinite knowledge and wisdom.