As acknowledged, issue that has to be given top
priority by a country for the continuance of its existence.
Nations have always to watch out for all kinds of internal
and external threats, assaults, risks of wars and terrorist
actions. This is why they allocate a great part of their
official budgets to defense. Armies are provided with
the most advanced aircraft, ships, and arms, and the
forces of defense are always kept at the highest level
The human body is surrounded by a great number of enemies
and threats. These enemies are bacteria, viruses, and
similar microscopic organisms. They exist everywhere;
in the air we inhale, the water we drink, the food we
eat, and the environment in which we live.
What most people are not aware of is that the human
body has an excellent army, the immune system, which
fights against enemies. This is a real army made up
of many "soldiers" and "officials" with different assignments,
who are specially trained, employ high technology and
fight with conventional and chemical weapons.
Every day, even every minute, a permanent war is fought
between this army and the enemy forces, but away from
our knowledge. This war can also be in the form of minor,
local skirmishes as well as battles in which the whole
body is involved and alarmed. We call these battles
The general conduct of this war almost never changes.
The enemy attempts to fool the other side by camouflaging
itself when intruding into the body. The trained investigative
forces are assigned by the defense to identify the enemies.
The enemies are identified and appropriate weapons are
produced to exterminate them. Then there is close contact,
the defeat of the enemy, cease-fire, and clearance of
the battleground. Last, there is storage of every type
of information about the enemy as a precaution against
the possibility of a later attack....
Now let us examine this interesting war closer.
The Besieged Castle: The Human Body
We can liken the human body to a castle besieged by
enemies. The enemies look for various ways to invade
this castle. The human skin is the wall of this castle.
The substance of keratin in the cells of the skin is
an impassable barrier for bacteria and fungi. Foreign
substances that reach the skin cannot pass through this
wall. Moreover, although the outer layer of skin that
contains keratin is continuously rubbed off, it is renewed
by skin growing from beneath. Thus, all unwanted guests
that have squeezed between the skin are ejected from
the body together with dead skins, during renewal of
the skin from inwards to outwards. The enemy can only
make its way in through a wound that is inflicted on
The Front Line
One of the ways through which viruses enter the body
is air. The enemy pushes its way to the body through
the air inhaled. However, a special secretion in the
nasal mucous membrane and cell-swallowing defense elements
in the lungs (phagocytes) meet these enemies and take
control of the situation before the danger grows. Digestive
enzymes in the stomach acid and small intestine eliminate
a great number of the microbes that seek to enter the
body through food.
The Clash of the Enemies
There are some microbes that have settled in various
parts of the human body (such as skin, skin folds, mouth,
nose, eye, upper respiratory canals, digestive canal,
the genitals) yet do not cause illness.
When a foreign microbe enters the body, these domestic
microbes - thinking that their habitation would be invaded-
and not wishing to give way to the foreigners who invade
their habitation - fight strenuously. We can define
them as professional soldiers. They try to protect their
territory for their own ends. Thus, the complex army
in our body is reinforced by these micro supports.
Step by Step to Hot War
If a microscopic intruder entering the body can overcome
defense elements on guard and bacteria serving as soldiers,
it causes war to begin with. After that, the body, with
its ordered army, fights a perfect offence-defense war
against this foreign army.
The war fought by the defense system is comprised of
1. Identification of the enemy.
2. The fortification of defenses and the preparation
of offensive weapons.
3. Attack and battle.
4. Retreat to normal state.
The cells that first meet the enemy units are macrophage
cells that make "phagocytosis", i.e., that engulf the
enemy. These cells are involved in close contact with
the enemy, and fight a hand-to-hand war. They are just
like infantrymen who fight a bayonet war against enemy
units and struggle at the distant front line of the
Moreover, macrophages function as intelligence units,
or as the secret service of an army. They hold one portion
of the enemy they destroy. This portion is used to identify
the enemy’s identity and to determine its features.
Macrophages pass this portion to another intelligence
unit, messenger-T cells.
When a country is involved in war, a general mobilization
is declared. Most of the natural resources and the budget
are spent on war expenses. The economy is re-arranged
according to this extraordinary situation and the country
is involved in total action. In a war, which the defensive
army of the body will fight as a whole, mobilization
is also declared. Do you wonder how?
If the enemy is more than they can handle, the cavalcades
(macrophages) that launch an attack secrete a special
substance. The name of this substance is "pyrogen" and
it is a kind of alarm call. After travelling a long
way, "pyrogen" reaches the brain and stimulates the
fever-increasing centre of the brain. Following this
stimulation, the brain sets off alarms in the body and
the person develops a high fever. The patient with a
high fever naturally feels a need to rest. Thus, the
energy needed by the defense army is not spent elsewhere.
As seen, there exists an extremely complex plan and
design at work.
The Ordered Army Swings into Action
The war between the microscopic intruder and the immune
system becomes more complicated after mobilization,
that is, your falling ill in bed. At this stage, infantrymen
(phagocytes) and cavalrymen (macrophages) have proved
insufficient, the whole body is alarmed, and the war
becomes heated. At this stage, lymphocytes - (T and
B cells) - intervene.
Cavalrymen (macrophages) pass the information they
have on the enemy to T helper cells. These cells summon
T cytotoxic and B cells to the battleground. These are
the most effective fighters of the immune system.
As soon as B cells receive information about the enemy,
they start producing weapons. These weapons, just like
ballistic missiles, are only produced to hit the enemy
on whom information is available. This production is
so perfect that the three dimensional structure of the
microscopic intruder and the three dimensional structure
of the weapon fully match each other. This accord is
like that between a key and its lock.
Antibodies advance towards the enemy and clamp tightly
on it. After this stage, the enemy is neutralized like
a tank that has its treads, cannon and gun destroyed.
Afterwards, other members of the immune system come
and eliminate the neutralized enemy.
Here, there is a very important point to consider:
there are millions of types of enemy that the immune
system will confront. B cells can produce an appropriate
weapon for all types of enemy no matter what they are.
This means that the immune system innately has the knowledge
and capability to produce the keys appropriate to millions
of different types of locks. These unconscious cells
have the ability to make millions of types of antibodies,
and their using it in the best way proves the existence
of a creation by the Owner of an exalted power.
Furthermore, the system is more sophisticated. As B
cells destroy the enemy with ballistic weapons, T cytotoxic
cells also fight a tough war against the enemy. When
some viruses enter a cell, they can hide from the weapons
produced by the B cells. The T cytotoxic cells find
the diseased cells in which this camouflaged enemy hides
and destroy them.
After the Victory
After the enemy is defeated, the T suppressor cells
swing into action. These cells give the army of defense
the command to cease fire, and cause the T cytotoxic
and B cells to stop their activities. Thus, the body
does not carry on in a state of mobilization in vain.
After the war is over, most of the T and B cells produced
specifically for the war complete their lifecycle and
die. This tough war, however, is not to be forgotten.
Before the war, a short time passed while the enemy
was identified and the necessary preparations made.
If the enemy ever comes back, the body will be much
better prepared. A group of memory cells, which have
come to know the features of the enemy, will constantly
serve in the immune system in future. In a possible
second attack, the immune system, with the information
in the memory cells, will have the means to react before
the enemy gains force. The reason why we do not catch
mumps or measles again, after we have once caught them,
is because of the memory of our immune system.
Who is He Who Creates the System?
After all the information we have examined, we have
to take our time and think about how this perfect immune
system to which we owe our lives has come to exist.
There is a flawless plan at work. Everything needed
for the operation of this plan is intact: macrophages,
the pyrogen substance, the fever raising centre of the
brain, the body’s fever raising mechanisms, B cells,
T cells, weapons... How, then, has this perfect system
come into being?
Not surprisingly, the theory of evolution, which proposes
that living beings have come into being by coincidence,
cannot explain how this complex system came about. The
claim of the theory of evolution is that living beings
and living systems have originated step-by-step by the
accumulation of little coincidences. However, the immune
system cannot by any means have originated "step-by-step".
The reason is that in the case of the absence or malfunction
of even one of the factors that make up the system,
the system cannot work and the person could not survive.
The system must have come into being completely and
flawlessly with all its components intact. This reality
renders the notion of "coincidence" meaningless.
Who, then, makes this plan? Who knows that the body’s
fever must rise, and that only that way the energy needed
by the army of defense will not be spent elsewhere?
Is it the macrophages? Macrophages are merely tiny cells.
They do not have the capacity to think. They are living
organisms that obey an established superior order and
that fulfill their duties.
Is it man? Certainly not. People are not even aware
that such a perfect system is at work in their own bodies.
However, this system, of which we are unaware, protects
us from certain death.
It is obvious that the one who created the immune system,
and who created the whole human body, should be a Creator
Who has exalted knowledge and might. This Creator is
Allah, Who has created the human body from a "drop of
||The front defense line of the body is the skin.
When a cut or wound is inflicted on the skin,
it means that the body is in danger. Viruses and
bacteria can easily make their way through. When
such a wound is inflicted, "virus- and bacteria-hostile"
cells called "phagocytes", rush to the afflicted
spot and try to swallow the micro-organisms that
intrude into the body. On the other hand, the
wound on the skin has long since started to receive
treatment to prevent further foreign materials
from entering the body.
|"THE CELL INVASION"
OPERATION OF THE VIRUS
1. Virus contacts
the cell it approaches and adheres to its surface.
(It is seen on a bacteria cell in the scheme).
2. The virus discharges a special enzyme at
the point of contact that will help melt the
membrane of the cell it approaches. Because
of this action, a hole forms in the cell wall.
The virus pulls back its tail and, by shrinking,
it injects the nucleic acid in its body (DNA
or RNA) into the cell.
3. The nucleic acid of the virus that enters
in the cell takes it under control. The vital
functions of the cell stop. The nucleic acid
of the virus self-replicates by using the resources
of the cell.
4. The newly formed parts of the virus come
together and form new viruses.
5. When sufficient viruses are formed, the
cell bursts and developed viruses swing into
action to find new host cells. The time from
the virus’ intrusion into a cell to the end
of its reproduction is around 20-25 minutes.
At the end of each replication, 200-300 new
viruses are formed in a host cell.
|Macrophages are those elements of the
immune system that fight at the front. They engulf
and digest all kinds of foreign substances in
the blood. Their other task is to call the T cells
for help wherever they meet the enemy. In the
photograph on the left, a macrophage is seen trying
to catch a bacterium with its extensions. On the
right, the macrophage is trying to engulf a lipid
molecule that has entered the body.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
The leucocytes, around a trillion in number,
form a highly specialized army of defense. The
most important agents of this army and the duties
they perform during a war with the enemy are
The virus, a genetic data package, is dependent
on the environment to be activated. It has to
use the mechanisms of a host cell in order to
It is a watchman and the defense cell in the
front line. It engulfs and digests all kinds
of foreign materials in the blood. When it runs
into a microscopic intruder, it summons up T
helper cells to the site of action.
The T Helper Cell
It is the administrator of the immune system.
After identifying the enemy, it goes to the
spleen and lymphatic glands and warns other
cells to fight against the agent of disease.
T Cytotoxic Cells
Warned by the T helper cell, these cells destroy
the cells that are occupied by foreign materials
and cancer cells.
The B Cell
These cells, considered as biological weapon
factories, are found in the spleen and the lymphatic
glands. When warned by T helper cells, they
produce strong chemical weapons named antibodies.
This protein in the shape of a "Y" sticks
onto the disease agent, renders it ineffective
and turns it into a target for killer cells.
The T Suppressor Cells
This third type of the T cells slows the activities
of the T and B cells or stops them. It ends
the assault after the illness has been overcome.
The Memory Cell
This defense cell is formed after the first
disease is over. By remaining in the body for
years, it ensures that the immunity mechanism
is activated very rapidly and effectively when
the body meets an agent of the same disease
1)The War Begins
When viruses are disseminated in the body,
some of them are engulfed by the macrophages.
Macrophages split the antibodies off the virus
and stick them onto their own surface. Very
few out of millions of T helper cells traveling
in the circulatory system have the ability to
"read" this specific antibody. These particular
T cells which stick on the macrophage become
2)Defense Cells Increase
When T helper cells are activated, they tend
to increase. They then warn the T cytotoxic
cells and B cells, which are few in number and
sensitive towards the enemy virus. While the
number of B cells increases, the T helper cells
give them the signal to produce antibodies.
3)The Defeat of the Disease
Meanwhile, some of the viruses have entered
the cells. Viruses can only replicate within
a cell. With the chemical materials they secrete,
T cytotoxic cells cause the death of these cells
by drilling through their membranes, thus preventing
the virus in the cell from reproducing. By holding
ectly onto the surface of the virus, antibodies
neutralise it, prevent it from entering the
cells and start chemical reactions that will
destroy the invaded cells.
4)After the War
After the disease is won, T suppressor cells
stop the whole offensive system. Memory-T and
B cells remain in the blood and lymphatic system
in order to become immediately activated in
case a virus of the same type is met.