The Miracle Of Human Creation

The Last Stage of Fertilisation

When the sperm enters the egg, it sheds its tail and leaves it outside. We may compare this to a space shuttle which detaches its fuel tank when returning to earth. As we know, when the fuel tanks which carry the shuttle outside the earth's atmosphere have fulfilled their purpose, they are released into space; when the fuel inside them is used up, the tanks are an unnecessary weight. To facilitate leaving the earth's atmosphere, it is necessary that these tanks be released at exactly the right time. In the same way, the tail of the sperm, which provides the required energy and movement capability, is left behind as the sperm attempts to enter the egg.

It is obvious to the attentive reader that fertilisation is a highly calculated and systematic process. Very slowly the fluids which surround the egg dissolve the sperm's armour as it reaches the outer membrane surrounding the egg. The enzymes that are released at the moment the sperm's armour is perforated allow the sperm to pierce the egg's outer membrane and enter. The change in the electric charge at this moment repels other sperm and protects the newly developing organism from uninvited guests.

When the sperm reach the egg, only one of them succeeds in penetrating its protective membrane. (1) When the sperm enters the egg, certain changes occur and the egg closes itself to other sperm. (2-3) Once it enters the egg, the sperm's tail breaks off and remains outside. (4) Fertilisation occurs.

If such a highly protective and cooperative system had not been created, the union of the sperm and the egg would never have been achieved.

If the egg cell had not secreted the guiding fluid, it would not have been possible for the sperm to reach the egg, which is so distant from it relative to its own size.

If the sperm had not had its armour, they, like other microorganisms, would have been dissolved in the fluid surrounding the egg.

If special dissolving enzymes had not been placed beneath this armour, the sperm would never have been able to enter the egg, even after having gone so far as to reach it.

If the electric charges of the sperm and the egg had been the same and not opposite, the egg would have repelled the sperm and no sperm would have entered the egg.

As we can see, in the union of a single sperm with an egg, there is an extraordinary balance and calculation. Furthermore, this balance and calculation have occurred not just once; they have been repeated time and again since the beginning of the human race for every one of the millions of individuals spread throughout the world.

Even in one single stage there is no room for chance in this miraculous process, which shows very plainly that God created human beings.

Everyone in the heavens and earth belongs to Him. All are submissive to Him. It is He Who originated creation and then regenerates it. That is very easy for Him. His is the most exalted designation in the heavens and the earth. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Qur'an, 30: 26-27)

The moment the sperm enters the egg, it sheds its tail. In the pictures above, we see, stage by stage, the breaking off of the tail of a sperm that has managed to enter an egg. This occurs because the continual movement of the tail inside the egg would soon damage it. This breaking off of a sperm's tail can be compared to the jettisoning of fuel tanks and engines no longer needed by missiles and shuttles as they leave the earth's atmosphere on their way into space. The fact that the sperm takes account of something like this and detaches its tail in time, so as not to damage the egg, is a sign of a highly conscious activity. The One Who makes this sperm act in this conscious manner is God, the Creator of the sperm and the egg.


The Protective Armour of the Sperm

The head section of the sperm has a protective armour. (1-2) Under this armour there is a second armour, and under it is the cargo that the sperm carries. (3-4) This armour will protect the valuable cargo inside it, that is, genetic information, from the harmful materials around it. This protective armour is very strong, yet is designed to open easily at the appropriate moment. (5). For example, during fertilisation this protective armour in the head of the sperm opens and releases the dissolving enzymes inside it. (6) The fact that this wonderful design has been placed in a microscopic cell is an example of God's flawless creation.


The Determination of the Baby's Sex

Until recently, people believed that a baby's sex was determined by the mother's cells, or, at least, that the sex was determined by cells from both the mother and the father. But in the Qur'an there is a different account of this matter; it says that maleness and femaleness are created from sperm entering the womb:

He (God) has created both sexes, male and female, from a drop of semen which has been ejected. (Qur'an, 53: 45-46)

The truth of this revelation of the Qur'an has been confirmed scientifically by developments in genetics and microbiology. It is now understood that sex is determined by the male sperm and that the female egg plays no role in this determination. What determines sex is chromosomes. Of the 46 chromosomes that determine the human structure, two are called sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are labelled XY in males and XX in females, because the respective chromosomes resemble these letters. The Y chromosome carries male genes and the X chromosome carries female genes. The formation of a human being begins with the union of one of each of these chromosomes which are present in pairs in the male and female. During ovulation in the female, the sex cell divides into two, each carrying the X chromosome. In males, the sex cell divides into two sperm, one carrying the X chromosome and the other carrying the Y chromosome. If the X chromosome in the female unites with a sperm carrying the X chromosome, the baby will be a girl; if it unites with a sperm containing the Y chromosome, the baby will be a boy.

That is, the sex of the baby depends on which chromosome in the male unites with the female egg.

Certainly, until the science of genetics appeared, that is, until the twentieth century, these facts were unknown. In many cultures it was generally believed that a baby's sex was determined by the female. Precisely for this reason, a woman who gave birth to a girl was condemned. However, in the Qur'an, 13 centuries before the discovery of genes, this superstition was rejected by the revelation that the origins of sex do not come from the female, but from the semen of the male.

The Qur'an is the word of God, the Lord of all the worlds. Such scientific miracles are among the evidence of this fact.

It is a Book We have sent down to you, full of blessing, so let people of intelligence ponder its Signs and take heed. (Qur'an, 38: 29)






The sex of a baby depends on which male chromosome unites with the female egg. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes (that is, 46 individual chromosomes), 2 are called sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are designated as XY in the male and XX in the female. The Y chromosome carries male genes, the X chromosome, female genes. The formation of a human body begins with the union of one of each of these chromosomes, which are present in pairs in males and females (left). If the X chromosome in the female unites with the sperm containing the X chromosome in the male, the baby will be a girl; if it unites with the sperm containing the Y chromosome in the male, the baby will be a boy. (Gerard J. Tortora, Introduction to the Human Body: Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, pp. 569-570)