Ten Million People
and One Gram of the Hormone Aldosterone
In order to survive, countless balances must be preserved
in your body every moment. As a person lives his daily
life, he is not aware of any of these balances. For
example, at this moment various systems are adjusting
your blood pressure. The "aldosterone" hormone produced
in the adrenal glands has the duty of preventing a fall
in your blood pressure and adjusting the sodium balance
in your body.
If the aldosterone of ten million people were
pooled together, only one gram of the hormone
would result. Despite the fact that there is so
little of it in the human body, the function of
this hormone is very important.
In your body exists
as little as one gram in ten million of aldosterone.
Research has shown that from one ton of adrenal glands,
only ten milligrams of aldosterone is secreted.26
In order to obtain one gram of aldosterone, it would
be necessary to collect the aldosterone secreted from
the adrenal glands of a total of ten million people.
The human body is created in such a delicate balance
that a deficiency in such a small quantity of this hormone
results in death.
As explained above, aldosterone has
two purposes: to increase the concentration of sodium
(Na+) in the blood and to raise blood pressure. These
two requirements are intimately connected to each other
and aldosterone is a finely designed solution for meeting
these two needs at the same time. If the quantity of
sodium in the blood increases, the fluid level in the
blood also rises with it. This is because molecules
of water have a tendency to go where sodium is high.
Here is where we see the excellence
of the design of aldosterone. On the one hand, it increases
the amount of sodium; on the other, it uses the capacity
of sodium to absorb fluid. When the blood level of sodium
falls, aldosterone warns the cells in the tiny tubes
of the kidneys. These cells intercept the sodium ions
in the urine and reabsorb them. This causes the sodium
ions to enter the cells forming the tiny tubes, and
from there they are released again into the blood.
In this way, the amount of sodium is
raised, the ion balance is maintained, the amount of
fluid in the blood is increased, and blood pressure
is restored to its normal level. When the sodium ions
in the tiny tubes of the kidneys are restored, potassium
ions (K+) are secreted from the blood to the urine because
the proportion of sodium and potassium in the blood
must be at a very particular rate. The mineral proportion
is very important to ensure the proper acid-base balance
in the fluid inside and outside the cells, and for the
proper functioning of the nervous system.
Because there must be a certain level of sodium
and potassium in the blood, the cells in the
kidney channels reabsorb a sodium ion (Na+)
and release a potassium ion (K+) to the urine.
Aldosterone is responsible for ensuring this
Aldosterone is produced in the exterior
portion of the adrenal gland. The cells in this portion
have never seen the cells in the depths of the kidneys
(and there is no possibility for them to encounter them).
How is it that these cells know how to produce the right
hormone for the reabsorption of sodium and the release
of potassium? How does the adrenal gland know how to
balance electrolytes and reduce the blood pressure?
Most people are unaware that such ions exist in their
Every cell in the human body is created
to fulfill a special function; they are given their
special qualities and placed in an area where they can
perform this function. In short, a human being is created,
and every feature of his body is a proof of this creation.
He to Whom the kingdom
of the heavens and the Earth belongs. He does not have
a son and He has no partner in the Kingdom. He created
everything and determined it most exactly. (Qur'an,
A Flawless Planning
The next system we will examine is
a wonder of planning and design. As we examine the workings
of this system, we must ask, "Could this system have
come into being as the result of unconscious chance?"
This question is important because
time, chance, and the results of natural law are the
reasons offered by history's worst deceit for its denial
of the existence of God; the theory of evolution bases
its account of the development of living things on this
The deceit of evolution claims that
human beings and everything else ultimately came into
existence by chance. However, the system that we are
about to examine is, by itself, enough to reveal the
real nature of the myth of chance and to show the deceitful
enterprise of evolution.
The system is constructed so that it
will come into operation when there is a blood pressure
drop. It begins its role when the blood pressure drops
below a certain level, like a fire alarm sensor specially
designed to detect smoke coming from a fire.
When the blood pressure falls, the
alarm sounds because low blood pressure can be very
serious. When the alarm sounds, a series of measures
must be taken to raise it. These measures include the
1. The blood vessels
must be constricted. (This constriction will cause a
rise in blood pressure, as is the case when a garden
hose is compressed in the end.)
2. More water must
be absorbed from the kidneys and mixed with the blood
to raise the blood fluid level.
3. A person must be
made to drink water as soon as possible.
A flawless system
has been placed in the depths of the human body to put
these measures into effect. At the moment when the blood
pressure falls (or the amount of sodium in the blood
becomes less), certain cells in the kidneys become aware
of the problem. The Juxtaglomerular cells secrete a
very important substance called "renin."27
The level of blood pressure is of vital importance
for a human being.
It is a wonder that cells can detect
a drop in blood pressure or in the amount of sodium
present and then secrete renin, the first link in a
long chain that raises blood pressure.
In blood plasma, there is a protein
that normally has a neutral effect as it circulates
in the blood. This protein, called angiotensiogen, is
produced in the liver. The first stage of this incredible
planning starts here. Angiotensiogen and renin have
no functions of their own, but they were designed specially
to unite with one another. How is it possible that they
are specially produced like logo blocks designed to
fit perfectly into one another?
Consider this: kidney cells and liver
cells are far removed from one another. How is it that
one of these groups of cells produces one part (renin)
and the other group produces the other part (angiotensiogen)
in such a way as to fit perfectly with the first part?
Could this happen as the result of unconscious chance?
Certainly not! It is not possible that
such a process could occur by chance.
Renin changes the composition of the
angiotensiogen molecule, causing the emergence of a
new molecule, angiotensin I:
Renin + Angiotensiogen ? Angiotensin
The angiotensiogen protein produced in the liver
and the renin produced by the kidney cells come
together for a common purpose. These two different
materials produced in two different organs fit
into each other like parts of a logo, demonstrating
the flawless design of the body.
This new molecule has no function either.
Found in the lungs, an enzyme called angiotensin converting
enzyme (ACE for short) functions to break down the angiotensin
I molecule. Because of this enzyme, angiotensin I changes
into a different molecule, angiotensin II.
Angiotensin I + ACE enzyme ? Angiotensin
Two different molecules produced in
the kidneys and the liver act on each other and a new
molecule is produced. Lung cells that have no relation
to kidney cells and liver cells produce an enzyme to
unite completely with this new molecule. Moreover, they
produce this enzyme long before it unites with these
molecules. How do lung cells produce the right enzyme
for a process that has not yet developed to interact
with a material that has not yet been produced? How
does it know how to make an enzyme that will change
a non-functional hormone into a functional hormone?
Again, it is clear that each stage
is a designed system. The angiotensin II produced as
a result of these stages is a proof of design and planning.
This enzyme has two vital functions that would lead
the system to the desired end result: the first of these
functions is the constriction of the blood vessels (the
first of the three desired results that we enumerated
at the beginning of this section). Angiotensin II stimulates
the muscles surrounding the blood vessels and activates
the mechanism that contracts these muscles. In this
way, the muscles contract, narrowing the diameter of
the blood vessels and raising the blood pressure.
Could this happen by unconscious chance?
Again, this is impossible; Angiotensin
II is specially designed to constrict the blood vessels
and these is no room for chance in this flawless design.
Another important function of angiotensin
II is to summon into action the wonderful aldosterone
hormone. Angiotensin II reaches the adrenal glands and
gives the command to secrete aldosterone. This is another
proof of planning: when aldosterone mixes with the blood,
it causes the kidneys to absorb the fluid in the urine.
As a result, the blood pressure will
rise. This is the second result we want to achieve.
The material produced in concerted
effort (and according to a plan by the kidneys, lungs
and liver) brings about the secretion of the hormone
causing a rise in blood pressure. In order to do this,
it is necessary that the kidney cells, lung cells and
liver cells form a coalition.
Before all else, this coalition must
investigate what they need to do when blood pressure
drops to make a decision about the best way "to constrict
the blood vessels" and "to ensure the secretion of aldosterone."
Later, they must again make an investigation
and analyze the anatomy of the adrenal glands and that
of the cells in the muscles of the blood vessels and
determine the way in which they function. Later, they
will have to determine the molecular make-up of Angiotensin
II to cause the muscles of the blood vessels to contract,
and the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone.
When blood pressure falls, renin secreted by
certain kidney cells and angiotensiogen secreted
in the liver come together and unite, like two
matching parts of a logo. After this union,
an enzyme called ACE forms a molecule called
angiotensin II. This molecule constricts the
blood vessels and ensures the secretion of aldosterone
in the kidneys. This hormone causes the kidneys
to reabsorb much more fluid from the urine.
This chain of operations adjusts the blood pressure,
raising it to the proper level.
That last thing that must be done is
to determine how this molecule will be produced. Every
organ must take responsibility for one stage in its
production. In terms of the production plan, there is
a three-stage assembly system in which every organ is
given a function. The kidney will produce renin, the
liver will produce angiotensiogen and the lungs will
produce ACE. Afterwards, the cells must return to their
If someone does not believe that this
system was created by a supreme power according to a
special plan, that person must accept the view that
unconscious cells achieved this by the mechanisms of
neo-Darwinism (mutation and natural selection). The
claims of evolutionists are unbelievable and illogical
because this system (comprised of the kidney, liver
and lung cells), which is irreducibly complex, must
have come into being all at once at the same time. The
probability of this happening by chance would require
very unlikely events. At the same time (and again ultimately
by chance), cells would have had to be formed to measure
the pressure in the kidneys, then aldosterone would
have had to be formed in the adrenal gland, the kidney
tube cells would have had to acquire a structure designed
to respond to aldosterone, and the cells in the muscles
of the blood vessels would have had to get a structure
that could be affected by angiotensin II. Countless
other elements would have had to be in place at the
same moment for this system to come into being, and
if just one element had been absent, the whole system
would not have functioned.
1. The adrenal glands produce the hormones that
stimulate the thirst center.
2. Information taken from baroreceptors in the
heart travel to the
3. When enough water is provided, the tongue,
the stomach and the intestine send the message
that the reserves are filled.
4. The hypothalamus orders the saliva glands
to stop production, and the result is a dry
Many times in the course of a day we feel thirsty
and so drink a glass of water. But we are generally
unaware of what is happening in our bodies at
that time. Cells in the various organs of the
body determine the water needs of the body and
work with one another in a series of operations
by which a person is urged to drink water. We
never think about where this urge comes from;
we just drink the water that assists our bodies.
A system as this could not come into
being as a result of unconscious operations of chance.
This system, created by the eternal intelligence and
knowledge of God and placed in the human body, has worked
perfectly in the bodies of every one of the millions
of human beings that have ever existed (except in cases
of illness). Human beings have become aware of the existence
of this system through research done with the help of
sophisticated technological tools. Every bit of research
that is done makes it impossible to explain the existence
of the systems operating in the human body in terms
of the myth of chance. This is because human beings
are created, and it is not possible to hide the magnificence
of creation by creating imaginary and illogical scenarios.
At the beginning of this section, we
listed three measures necessary to increase blood pressure.
The third was the necessity of getting the person to
drink more water. In order to get a person to drink
water, he must want to drink it. This time, the unconscious
cells of the lungs, kidneys and liver deep in the body
must influence a person's psychology.
The required plan
is just one more detail in the flawless system created
by God. The angiotensin-II produced by the concerted
efforts of the kidneys, lungs and liver goes to a special
part of the brain and activates it. This area of the
brain is the "thirst center" that stimulates a sense
of thirst. But there, an impediment called the "blood-brain
barrier," which protects the brain makes it very difficult
for the angiotensin II to pass from the blood to the
brain tissues. This protective system is found in several
areas of the brain, and one of these is the "thirst
center." Thanks to the special character created in
angiotensin-II, it is able to stimulate the thirst center
and to arouse the desire to drink water.28
Can this system have come to be by
the operation of unconscious chance?
After so many proofs, there is nothing
left to say to a person who answers "Yes." The heart
and conscience of such a person has been blinded; he
has been conditioned not to accept the truth. God reveals
in the Qur'an what is to be said to such a person:
… Do you then disbelieve
in Him Who created you from dust, then from a drop of
sperm, and then formed you as a man? He is, however,
God, my Lord, and I will not associate anything with
my Lord. (Qur'an, 18: 37-38)
26 Yenson Mutahhar, Insan Biyokimyasi
(Human Biochemistry), Ankara, Gunes Bookstorei, 1995,
27 Ic Hastaliklari (Internal Diseases), p. 275
28 Fizyoloji Ders Kitabi (Textbook of physiology), 1997,